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Black Power

The term Black Power was first popularly used by Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers Stokely Carmichael (a.k.a.
Kwame Toure) and Willie Ricks (a.k.a. Mukasa Dada) at the 1966 March
Against Fear. As a political movement of the late 1960s and early
1970s, it denoted a range of ideologies. Proponents of Black Power
tended to be in conflict with the mainstream Civil Rights Movement.
Organizations such as SNCC, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and
later the Black Panther Party publicly renounced emphasis on
integration and nonviolent protest and instead adopted militant
language to emphasize race pride and the formation of autonomous
political and cultural institutions to promote black collective
interests. The term “Black is Beautiful” and the Black
Arts Movement are generally associated with the concept.

Associated Archive Content : 165 results

News Release from the Presbyterian Office of Information Regarding the CDGM

The United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. releases a statement regarding funding for the Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM). After hearing statements from Marian Wright, the National Missions staff voted in support of funding for the CDGM. Mary Holmes Junior College has acted as the "enabling agency in channeling" money from the OEO to the CDGM.

Newspaper Article "Negro Nation Ratified"

This article discusses a group of black nationalists who ratified a declaration of independence for a separate Negro nation. The new nation was named the "Republic of New Africa."

Newspaper Clippings from New York and New Jersey

These newspaper clippings represent the views of several individuals who are critical of the Black Power Movement, the work ethics of African Americans and the government's policies.

Nonviolence: The Only Road to Freedom

In this article, Dr. King argues that the American Negro's salvation will be reached by "rejecting the racism, materialism and violence that has characterized Western civilization" and working instead toward a world of brotherhood and cooperation. The civil rights leader denounces recent violent uprisings in urban ghettos, as they only contribute to the growing frustrations and issues perpetuating America's racial divide.

Pamphlet About the Black Panther Party

This pamphlet contains historical and contextual references to the Black Panther Party. It also includes a speech by John Hulett and an interview of Stokely Carmichael highlighting the political and social movements occurring in Lowndes County, Alabama.

Peace and Freedom Party

The Peace and Freedom Party was originally established in the Northern region of California in 1967. This pamphlet features the party's political platform in addition to voter registration procedures.

Peace and Freedom Party Registration Drive

This document discusses the Peace and Freedom Party Registration Drive and the California Committee for the Peace and Freedom Party. The registration drive aims to place the Peace and Freedom Party on the 1968 California ballot with the purpose of opposing the Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. Also included is a partial list of the Peace and Freedom Party's endorsers, which includes 1962 Nobel Peace Prize recipient Linus Pauling.

Poems Entitled "Black Power," "Beyond Anger," and "Sins Of The Father"

In this document, there are three poems: "Black Power", "Beyond Anger" and "Sins Of The Father".

Power Black or White and Christian Conscience

This document is an enclosure that belongs with a letter from Gayrund Wilmore, Isaiah Pogue, Leroy Patrick, Elder Hawkins, and Bryant George to MLK. The writers seek to raise the conscientiousness of Christians in both the black and white communities, and address an existing dilemma between race and power with the hope of bringing about reconciliation.

Press Release - American Jewish Congress

Richard Cohen issues a statement on behalf of Murray A. Gordon, Dorothy Jones, and Arthur A. Wright. The statement denounces the article written by John F. Hatchett for the African-American Teachers Association Forum.

Proposal for Black Independence

Al Shabazz writes up a program for Black independence. The proposal suggests two program options for leaders to choose from. Once the program has been decided the leader would go out and gather the opinion of the masses. Next, the program would implement unconventional education along with employment and survival skills. The program also promotes an independent nation with alliances from those of all races. The program promotes black revolution and the demise of the elite White Supremacist.

Religion and Race Memo

The Religion and Race organization distributes a memo to discuss the various topics involving the meaning of "black power", the United Presbyterians joint actions within the Mississippi March, the testimony's end in Wilcox County, and Project Equality.

Request from The Wooster Afro-American Students Organization

The Wooster Afro-American Students Organization inquires if Dr. King would be available to speak to the institute about the concept of Black Power.

Reverend Walter E. Fauntroy's Keynote Address to the SCLC

Reverend Walter E. Fauntroy's keynote address to the SCLC informs his listeners of the trials and the triumphs of African-Americans in the US. Fauntroy focuses primarily on the subject nonviolence and provides his listeners with a summary of the progress that blacks have made since the start of the Civil Rights Movement.

Review on "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community" 1967

The Virginia Kirkus Review wrote this descriptive review on Dr. King's final book, Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? The context of the review shows differences between the messages of Dr. King's earlier works and Where Do We Go From Here. Dr. King's earlier publications focused on the work of gaining decent treatment and basic civil rights for black Americans. However, this book heavily challenged the status quo in America.

Robert F. Thorne's Response to the SCLC

Robert F. Thorne expresses his commitment to the civil rights cause, but will discontinue his financial contributions to the SCLC due to Dr. King's statements regarding the Vietnam War.

SCLC Newsletter: October 1963

This document contains the SCLC's newletter for October 1963. The articles featured in the newsletter include: SCLC's recent accomplishments, details of the Sixteen Street Baptist Church bombing, the seventh annual SCLC convention, data regarding employment for Negroes in Alabama, and gains made in St. Augustine, Florida. Also featured are numerous photographs of Dr. King and notable Civil Rights leaders.

SCLC Report: Operation Breadbasket

Rev. Fred C. Bennette, Jr. writes a report on Operation Breadbasket. Rev. Bennette "hopes to increase its activity in alleviating the economic plight of the Negro in America." At the culmination of the report, he lists the main cities where the project will be implemented.

Sentinel: "King's Book Refutes Black Power"

This document is a newspaper clipping from the Los Angeles Sentinel,l giving a review of Dr. King's book, Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community. Headlined under the title, "King's Book Refutes Black Power", the book review places special emphasis on Dr. King's objection of black power as a slogan. In his book, Dr. King informed his readers that the paths of black and white individuals intersected towards equality and black power totally killed that process.

Showdown for Nonviolence

Dr. King discusses the rationale and strategy for the 1968 Poor People's Campaign in Washington, D.C. He explains that the SCLC hopes to avoid a national holocaust by promoting massive nonviolent demonstrations.

Spring Mobilization Committee Roundup of Nationwide Mobilization Activity

This document outlines activities around the country leading up to the April 15 Spring Mobilization Against the War in Vietnam rally in New York City.

Star: "An Analysis of Black Power" 1967

Paul Hathaway, of the Washington, D.C. Star newspaper, crafted a review of Dr. King's final publication, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?" This extensive review of Dr. King's book focused, primarily, on his stance regarding the black power movement. According, to Dr. King, in the book, black power was something that was needed to achieve tangible goals such as: economic and political power. However, the use of the slogan carried a very volatile meaning that would alienate many allies in the movement, not of African American descent.

Statement for Immediate Release from Harper & Row, Publishers

Harper & Row Publishers issued this press release to announce the arrival of Dr. King's final publication. The book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?", was his first written narrative, since he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The release also noted that the book would address Dr. King's perspective on racism, poverty and militarism. The tentative date of publishing, according to the document, was June 19, 1967.

Statement on The Negro's Political and Economic Power

Dr. King discusses the inferior political and economic power of the American Negro against the backdrop of emerging Black Power organizations. He reveals several new non-violent programs the SCLC targeted at economic and social justice: youth training and political reformation in the South. It is in accordance with the philosophy of non-violence that Dr. King believes the vast majority of Negroes will birth a "community in which neither power nor dignity will be black or white."

Telegram from Jacob K. Javits to MLK

Amidst the confusion of varying interpretations, Senator Jacob K. Javits asks Dr. King to share his interpretation of the term "black power," so that it can serve as a guide to others.

Telegram from Marvin Rich to MLK

Marvin Rich informs Dr. King of a resolution that was adopted at a recent conference. The resolution called for a summit of civil rights leaders.

Telegram from Thomas Penna to MLK

Thomas A. Penna, the president of the Interracial Council of Buffalo, lists his concerns related to a poverty bill that will be debated the next day. Penna points out that the bill will harm impoverished Negroes, who are already being denied their right to vote. Penna urges Dr. King to address these issues during his upcoming speech in Buffalo, New York.

Telegram Plea to Dr. King

An American citizen writes Dr. King pleading for him not to blame whites for all of the misunderstandings in the US.

Tenth Annual Convention

Dr. King addresses the achievements the SCLC has accomplished over the past ten years at the Tenth Annual Convention in Jackson, Mississippi. Dr. King then speaks on the fact that all of the SCLC's achievements are accomplished through nonviolence.

The Atlanta Constitution: Dr. King Warns Against the Riots

Eugene Patterson describes Dr. King's position against violent race riots and the consequences of these movements on the Black and White community.

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