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White Citizens Council

The White Citizens’ Council was begun in Mississippi in 1954 following the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that segregated schools were unconstitutional. The Council was a white resistance campaign against school integration and other efforts for black advancement. Unlike the Ku Klux Klan, the Council was open rather than secret and maintained that it was against violence. It pursued racist economic and political avenues to undermine black progress. The Council publicized the names of blacks working for change so that they would lose their jobs, credit ratings and income. To oppose school integration, the Council established private white academies. Although the Council spread across the South, by the late 1960s they went into decline.

Associated Archive Content : 38 results

The Future of Integration

Dr. King discusses "The Future of Integration." King opens with background history of three distinct periods of race relations. The first period extends from 1619 to 1862, the era of slavery. The next period extends from 1863 to 1954 when blacks were emancipated, but still segregated. The third period started on May 17, 1954 when segregation was deemed unconstitutional and integration commenced. Furthermore, Dr. King explains the changes that occurred as a result of integration and how it will affect blacks and whites in the future.

The Future of Integration

Dr. King discusses the various forms of segregation and the corresponding legislative acts that affect African Americans at the National Convention of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. King also provides details of how he hopes integration will take place.

The Future of Integration

Dr. King addresses the issue of the Future of Integration to an assembly at the State University of Iowa on November 11, 1959.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott Story

This dramatic story gives a riveting account of the Montgomery Bus Boycott movement and its aim to end segregation of the public transit in Montgomery, Alabama after the arrest of Rosa Parks. E.D. Nixon and other ministers illustrate the philosophy of nonviolent tactics employed by the Montgomery Improvement Association and their struggle for "cosmic companionship."

The Montgomery Story

Dr. King delivers an address entitled the "Montgomery Story" at the NAACP 47th Annual Convention. He address several issues throughout the address including: segregation, civil rights, equality, slavery and religion.

The New Leader: MLK's Letter from Birmingham Jail

The New Leader, a New York-based biweekly magazine, published Dr. King?s Letter from Birmingham City Jail. This historic piece is a response to the views of some fellow clergymen that Dr. King's methods are both "unwise and untimely.? King's critics had branded him an "outside agitator" and an extremist who should not be advocating lawbreaking. Dr. King responds with this letter and references prominent historical figures to counter these criticisms.

Wave of Violence Against Blacks

This pamphlet produced by the NAACP, New York Branch, begins with the discussion of a controversial statement made by Senator James Eastland and its adverse affect of increased violence among blacks. Eastland attacked the Supreme Court's desegregation edict by stating, "You are not required to obey any court which passes out such a ruling. In fact, you are obligated to defy it." Newspaper clippings are shown with headlines that illustrate the violence, murder, bombings, and attacks blacks faced.

Why Integration Won't Slow Up

This article featured in the St. Louis Post Dispatch is an extract from Dr. King's address at Cornell College. Dr. King discusses three attitudes that can be taken toward the question of progress in race relations: extreme optimism, extreme pessimism and the realistic position.

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