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Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was the landmark U.S.
Supreme Court decision of May 17, 1954 that declared racial
segregation in schools unconstitutional. The case was a consolidation
of five cases handled by the National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People (NAACP). Thurgood Marshall argued it before the
Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The unanimous ruling
overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson judgment that had established
the “separate but equal” doctrine, declaring it a
violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause.
The ruling strengthened the case for integration. Although Dr. King
cited the monumental nature of the opinion, he deplored the slow pace
of desegregation. King chose the anniversary of the decision for the
1962 launch of the Gandhi Society for Human Rights.

Associated Archive Content : 57 results

MLK's 'People to People' Column on Education

This article by Dr. King appeared in the New York Amsterdam News. He discusses the segregation of schools and how it is harming African American children and their opportunities.

MLK's Remarks at the World March Toward Human Rights Luncheon

This is a draft of remarks made by Dr. King to the World March Toward Human Rights Luncheon of the NAACP's Legal Education Defense Fund. The event took place at the Americana Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. Dr. King states that human rights involve two elements: recognition and opportunity. Dr. King proposes that the United States launch a Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged.

Modern Day Samson

Radio Station WDIX in South Carolina broadcasts an editorial answering the question, "Why does the Negro attack his white neighbor?" Dr. King's book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community" serves as the primary reference, alluding to the discrimination reflected in the proportion of whites who would not support interracial relationship and any efforts of integration.

My Dream: Julian Bond and the Constitution by MLK

Dr. King elaborates on the "hypocritical" and "high-handed injustice" executed by the United States and their refusal to seat Julian Bond for the Georgia State Legislature. Abraham Lincoln is highlighted for his exercise of the democratic right in his stance against Congress involving the United States war with Mexico. Dr. King asserts the irony in the method of Mr. Bond's colleagues and critics whom either indirectly or directly supported racial segregation. Dr.

New South: The Current Crisis In Race Relations

Dr. King, as President of the Montgomery Improvement Association, examines the race relations crisis. He discusses how segregation makes the Negro feel inferior and unaccepted. Dr. King also affirms that he will not accept a system of violence and the "evils of segregation."

Newspaper Article on MLK

In this article from the Miami Florida Herald, the writer summarizes a portion of the book "Why We Can't Wait", written by Dr. King.

Next Steps In The South

The Southern Regional Council publishes a pamphlet that addresses the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court Case and what its implications mean for society. The pamphlet goes on to answer several questions concerning school integration and gives background information on the case and the issues of segregation.

Nobel Lecture by MLK

This is a copy of the Lecture given by Dr. King in Oslo, Norway upon his winning the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize. He thanks the Norwegian Parliament for honoring him with this award. He speaks of the evils of racially injustice and the belief that "oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever." He speaks of the need to peacefully come together in harmony as humanity because a peaceful world cannot be built based on a "negative path."

One Vote for Every Man: Civil Rights Act

In this draft of an article for the March 1965 IUD Agenda, an AFL-CIO monthly publication, Dr. King recounts the progress made by the Civil Rights Movement and states that the issue in 1965 is the right to vote and the venue is Selma, Alabama. He discusses the pattern of exclusion, including the abuse of power by local sheriffs, illegal use of local and state laws, delay tactics of registrars, and literacy tests. He outlines measures that a Civil Rights Act of 1965 should include.

Outline of MLK's 1962 Address to NAACP

In Dr. King's handwriting, this outline is from a speech he later addressed to the NAACP, at its 53rd Annual Convention in Atlanta, GA.

People to People: Civil Rights and Negative Normalcy

Dr. King attempts to answer questions from white liberals concerning the progress and importance of the Civil Rights Movement.

School Desegregation 10 Years Later

Dr. King says that there have been few strides made in school desegregation. He says that schools that comply with the desegregation laws do it at an appalling slow pace. Lastly, he says that although there needs to be more progress in both the north and the south, he has hope for the future.

School Desegregation 10 Years Later

This statement was released by Dr. King ten years after the Supreme Court's decision, Brown versus Board of Education, which made segregation in public schools unconstitutional. The Reverend states, "The naive might believe great strides have been made in school desegregation over the past decade, but this is not at all true."

SCLC Newsletter: October-November 1965

This SCLC newsletter depicts the courage of SCLC workers putting their lives on the line while fighting for civil rights. The newsletter also highlights pictures from SCLC's ninth annual convention in Birmingham Alabama and a children's book about Dr. King.

SCLC Pamphlet of Articles in Rebuttal of MLK's Critics

Andrew Young, the National Executive Director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, issued this pamphlet entitled "Does Martin Luther King, Jr. Have the Right? The Qualifications? The Duty? To Speak Out on Peace?" The pamphlet features several editorials written in defense of Dr. King that were published in the New York Times, Detroit Free Press, New York Post, and the Nation in April 1967. The pamphlet includes a statement saying the SCLC's primary focus is civil rights but they support Dr. King's right to speak his opinion regarding the Vietnam War.

Seventh Annual Gandhi Memorial Lecture

Howard University presents Dr. King as its primary speaker for their seventh annual Gandhi Memorial Lecture in 1966. Dr. King traces the slow but meaningful progress society has made from slavery to the current civil rights movement. However, he notes that the present challenges in achieving equality involve not only the silence of individuals of good will but also the conditons that keep the Negro inferior.

Statement from the Eisenhower Administration to the NAACP

In an address to the NAACP, Vice President Richard Nixon discusses the reasons that progress has been made in the Eisenhower Administration and the goals that the organization needs to continue working toward.

Sunday with Martin Luther King, Jr. Radio Sermon on WAAF-AM Chicago, IL

This copy of Dr. King's segment on WAAF-AM radio, entitled "Sunday with Martin Luther King," explains the plight of the "Negro" in the South as similar to the oppression experienced by the Israelites in the book of Exodus.

The Hard or the Easy Way?

The Southern Regional Council discusses the topics of school segregation and integration in specific southern states and counties, especially Yancey County, North Carolina.

The Modern Negro Activist

Dr. King profiles the emergent young Negro civil rights activist who is college-educated, creative, brave and committed to the discipline of non-violence. He attributes the activist's diligence to a keen awareness that they inhabit a world on the cusp of positive social change and that they will have the privilege to direct that change. They are no longer to be an imitator of his white counterpart, but rather an initiator and leader in this new age.

The New Leader: MLK's Letter from Birmingham Jail

The New Leader, a New York-based biweekly magazine, published Dr. King?s Letter from Birmingham City Jail. This historic piece is a response to the views of some fellow clergymen that Dr. King's methods are both "unwise and untimely.? King's critics had branded him an "outside agitator" and an extremist who should not be advocating lawbreaking. Dr. King responds with this letter and references prominent historical figures to counter these criticisms.

The World's March Toward Human Rights

Dr. King addresses the issue of Equal Justice Under the Law at a convocation of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.

Those Who Fail To Speak

Dr. King discusses the stagnant progress of desegregation despite the fact that a decade has passed since the Supreme Court's ruling on Brown v. Board of Education.

Unitarian Universalist Statement of Consensus on Racial Injustice

The Fifth General Assembly of the Unitarian Universalist Association listed several laws adopted by the association. Some of the laws incorporate civil rights, demonstrations, voting rights, equality, civil disobedience, and discrimination in employment and housing.

University of Mississippi at Oxford Crisis

Dr. King discusses the Mississippi crisis after the admittance of James Meredith into the local University.

Unwise and Untimely?

This pamphlet from the Fellowship of Reconciliation features a letter written from eight Alabama Clergymen to Dr. King. The Clergymen express their discontent with the movement and Dr. King brings forth a response. The response is later known as one of Dr. King's famous texts, "Letter from Birmingham City Jail." The pamphlet also includes Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" speech from the 1963 March on Washington.

White Backlash Growing

The intensity in the Civil Rights Movement increased as blacks remained segregated and the Black Power movement gained popularity. White backlash increased during these times, but Dr. King noted that demonstrations "did not breed hate, but only revealed hatred that already existed."

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